Diagnosing and discriminating between primary and secondary aneurysmal bone cysts

Hiromi Sasaki, Satoshi Nagano, Hirofumi Shimada, Masahiro Yokouchi, Takao Setoguchi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Osamu Kunigou, Kosuke Maehara, Setsuro Komiya
Oncology Letters 2017, 13 (4): 2290-2296
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions frequently accompanied by multiple cystic lesions and aggressive bone destruction. They are relatively rare lesions, representing only 1% of bone tumors. The pathogenesis of ABCs has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a series of 22 cases of primary and secondary ABC from patients treated in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kagoshima University Hospital (Kagoshima, Japan) from 2001-2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The average age at the time of diagnosis of primary ABC was 17.9 years. Intralesional curettage and artificial bone grafting were performed in the majority of the patients with primary ABC. The local recurrence rate following curettage for primary ABC was 18%, and the cause of local recurrence was considered to be insufficient curettage. Although no adjuvant therapy was administered during the surgeries, it may assist the prevention of local recurrence in certain cases. The cases of secondary ABC were preceded by benign bone tumors, including fibrous dysplasia, giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma and non-ossifying fibroma. The features of the secondary ABC typically reflected those of the preceding bone tumor. In the majority of cases, distinguishing the primary ABC from the secondary ABC was possible based on characteristic features, including age of the patient at diagnosis and the tumor location. In cases that exhibit ambiguous features, including a soft tissue mass or a thick septal enhancement on the preoperative magnetic resonance images, a biopsy must be obtained in order to exclude other types of aggressive bone tumors, including giant cell tumor, osteosarcoma and telangiectatic osteosarcoma.

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