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[Benign tumours and tumour-like lesions of the bone : General treatment principles].

Der Orthopäde 2017 June
BACKGROUND: Benign bone lesions are much more common than malignant lesions. Some benign bone tumors have a characteristic and typical radiographic appearance, while others are more challenging. Therapy of benign bone tumors differs greatly. While the majority of benign bone tumors do not require surgical therapy, other specific lesions, e. g. aneurysmal bone cysts or giant cell tumors (GCT) of the bone require surgery due to their locally aggressive behavior.

DIAGNOSTICS: The major challenge for the radiologist and/or pathologist is the differentiation between a benign and low-grade malignant lesion (e. g. enchondroma versus low-grade chondrosarcoma) for which all available clinical and radiographic information is mandatory. Therefore, surgical therapy is rather more often performed than necessary due to uncertainty in many cases.

THERAPY: Novel systemic therapies are available for fibrous dysplasia and GCT of the bone: Fibrous dysplasia can be treated with bisphosphonates, and GCT responds to denosumab. In fact, denosumab has been approved for the treatment of irresectable GCT. Osteoid osteoma is fairly easy to recognize and also to treat given the characteristic clinical presentation and rapid and effective response to local therapy (possible as percutaneous thermo-/laser ablation). In summary, several therapeutic options exist for benign bone tumors, and the choice depends upon the tendency/risk of local recurrence, the rate of surgical complications, options for defect reconstruction, postoperative functional deficits, and specific patient characteristics.

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