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Long-term clinical and radiologic follow-up of Schilder's disease.

BACKGROUND: Schilder's disease is a rare, subacute, or chronic demyelinating disorder that mainly affects children and generally shows a monophasic course.

CASE: Here, we present three boys diagnosed with Schilder's disease, age at onset 10-14 years, and followed up for 4-8 years. All of them presented with headache, two with encephalopathy and vomiting, and one with diplopia and vertigo. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed two large demyelinating lesions, asymmetric in two patients and symmetric in the other. They were treated with steroid therapy. There were no radiologic relapses after discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy in all patients, but clinical attack without objective clinical findings was observed in one patient. Mild memory deficits and decline in school performance were the only neurologic sequelae in two patients. Cranial MRI findings showed significant shrinkage, but persistent T2-weighted hyperintensity of white matter lesions and loss of ring contrast enhancement at the end of the steroid therapy. There were no differences between the radiologic findings at the end of the steroid therapy and subsequent follow-ups.

CONCLUSION: Although Schilder's disease is considered to be a variant of MS, it behaves more like ADEM with its monophasic course, and low recurrence rates. Radiologic features include shrinkage of mass lesions after steroid therapy, but sequel lesions remain same at the subacute and chronic stage.

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