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Drug Induced Liver Injury at a Tertiary Hospital in India: Etiology, Clinical Features and Predictors of Mortality

Chetan Rathi, Nirav Pipaliya, Ruchir Patel, Meghraj Ingle, Aniruddha Phadke, Prabha Sawant
Annals of Hepatology 2017, 16 (3): 442-450
28425415

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare; however, it is one of the important causes of acute liver failure which results in significant morbidity or mortality.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based on predefined criteria and followed up for at least 6 months or until normalization of liver tests. Causality assessment was done by applying the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method model.

RESULTS: We collected data from 82 individuals diagnosed with DILI at our hospital from 2014 through 2015 (41 men; median age, 38 years). The most commonly implicated drugs were antitubercular therapy (ATT) (49%), antiepileptic drugs (12%), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in 10%, antiretroviral drugs (9%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (6%). 8 out of 13 deaths were liver related. Also, liver related mortality was significantly higher for ATT DILI (17.5%) vs. those without (2.4%) (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in overall as well as liver related mortality in hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed pattern of injury. Laboratory parameters at one week after discontinuation of drug predicted mortality better than those at the time of DILI recognition. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, jaundice, encephalopathy, MELD (Model for end stage liver disease) score and alkaline phosphatase at one week, independently predicted mortality.

CONCLUSION: DILI results in significant overall mortality (15.85%). ATT, anti-epileptic drugs, CAM and antiretroviral drugs are leading causes of DILI in India. Presence of jaundice, encephalopathy, MELD score and alkaline phosphatase at one week are independent predictors of mortality.

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