SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Acute kidney injury in symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis: Systematic review.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Textbooks and reviews do not mention the association of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis with acute kidney injury in subjects without immunodeficiency or autoimmunity.

STUDY DESIGN: Stimulated by our experience with two cases, we performed a review of the literature.

RESULTS: The literature documents 38 cases (26 male and 12 female individuals ranging in age from 0.3 to 51, median 18 years) of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis complicated by acute kidney injury: 27 acute interstitial nephritides, 1 jaundice-associated nephropathy, 7 myositides and 3 hemolytic uremic syndromes. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was observed in 18 (47%) cases. Acute kidney injury did not resolve in one patient with acute interstitial nephritis. Two patients died because of systemic complications. The remaining 35 cases fully recovered.

CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis, a relevant kidney injury is rare but the outcome potentially fatal. It results from interstitial nephritis, myositis-associated acute kidney injury, hemolytic uremic syndrome or jaundice-associated nephropathy.

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