JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ginkgo biloba L. attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures and associated neurological conditions in lithium-pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway hyperactivation

Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2017 May 23, 204: 8-17
28390940

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks. The severity of seizures and aggression in rats were scored following treatment with GBbf. Further, open field, forced swim, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests were conducted. Histopathological, protein levels and gene expression studies were performed in the isolated brains.

RESULTS: Treatment with GBbf reduced seizure severity score and aggression in epileptic animals. Improved spatial cognitive functions and recognition memory, along with reduction in anxiety-like behavior were also observed in the treated animals. Histopathological examination by Nissl staining showed reduction in neuronal damage in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. The dentate gyrus and Cornu Ammonis 3 regions of the hippocampus showed reduction in mossy fiber sprouting. GBbf treatment attenuated ribosomal S6 and pS6 proteins, and hippocampal mTOR, Rps6 and Rps6kb1 mRNA levels.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study concluded that GBbf treatment suppressed lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures severity and incidence with improved cognitive functions, reduced anxiety-like behavior and aggression. The effect was found to be due to inhibition of mTOR pathway hyperactivation linked with recurrent seizures.

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