JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Neuromyelitis Spectrum Disorders

Brian G Weinshenker, Dean M Wingerchuk
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2017, 92 (4): 663-679
28385199
The understanding of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has evolved substantially since its initial description over a century ago. The discovery in 2004 of a pathogenic autoantibody biomarker targeting aquaporin 4 IgG revolutionized diagnosis and therapeutic development. Although NMOSD resembles multiple sclerosis (MS), differences were identified and articulated in the late 1990s. New diagnostic criteria incorporating the biomarker as well as better understanding of the clinical and radiologic features of NMOSD now permit accurate diagnosis and differentiation from MS. Aquaporin 4 IgG-associated NMOSD is now regarded as an immune astrocytopathy with lytic and nonlytic effects on astrocytes. A second autoantibody, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG, which targets myelin rather than astrocytes, leads to an NMOSD syndrome with clinical and radiologic features that overlap but are distinct from those of aquaporin 4 IgG-associated NMOSD and MS. We review current understanding of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, and treatment of NMOSD.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
28385199
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.