REVIEW
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Sonographic evaluation of renovascular hypertension in the pediatric population: State-of-the-art.

Hypertension in children affects 2-5% of the pediatric population. Identifying secondary causes of hypertension is crucial, as some of these entities may be treatable. Renovascular hypertension accounts for 5-10% of the secondary causes of hypertension in children and is mainly related to fibromuscular dysplasia and neurofibromatosis type 1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the kidneys, including Doppler interrogation, is the recommended primary screening tool. A comprehensive study of the upper abdomen and retroperitoneum allows for identification of additional underlying etiologies. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the different causes of renovascular hypertension in children one can diagnose during the initial ultrasonographic evaluation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:282-292, 2017.

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