Lipid quantification by Raman microspectroscopy as a potential biomarker in prostate cancer

Jordan O'Malley, Rahul Kumar, Andrey N Kuzmin, Artem Pliss, Neelu Yadav, Srimmitha Balachandar, Jianmin Wang, Kristopher Attwood, Paras N Prasad, Dhyan Chandra
Cancer Letters 2017 July 1, 397: 52-60
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains incurable and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among American men. Therefore, detection of prostate cancer (PCa) at early stages may reduce PCa-related mortality in men. We show that lipid quantification by vibrational Raman Microspectroscopy and Biomolecular Component Analysis may serve as a potential biomarker in PCa. Transcript levels of lipogenic genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its downstream effector fatty acid synthase (FASN), and rate-limiting enzyme acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were upregulated corresponding to both Gleason score and pathologic T stage in the PRAD TCGA cohort. Increased lipid accumulation in late-stage transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tumors compared to early-stage TRAMP and normal prostate tissues were observed. FASN along with other lipogenesis enzymes, and SREBP-1 proteins were upregulated in TRAMP tumors compared to wild-type prostatic tissues. Genetic alterations of key lipogenic genes predicted the overall patient survival using TCGA PRAD cohort. Correlation between lipid accumulation and tumor stage provides quantitative marker for PCa diagnosis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy-based lipid quantification could be a sensitive and reliable tool for PCa diagnosis and staging.


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