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The optimal discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents: A meta-analysis of randomized trials

Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jingxue Fang, Yang Liu, Tong An, Meijuan Zou, Gang Cheng
International Journal of Cardiology 2017 May 15, 235: 73-86
28284499

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation. Nevertheless, optimal discontinuation of DAPT remains a controversy. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate optimal discontinuation of DAPT in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES.

METHODS: We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov from database RCTs that reported different modes of discontinuation of DAPT in patients with DES. The primary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI) and probably or definite stent thrombosis (ST). Secondary endpoints were repeat revascularization, stroke, major bleeding and net adverse clinical events (NACE).

RESULTS: We included 13 RCTs meeting the criteria with a total of 36,749 patients. No significant difference was observed in all-cause death (RR [95% CI]=0.87 [0.75, 1.01], P=0.07, I2 =0%), cardiovascular death (RR [95% CI]=0.97 [0.79, 1.19], P=0.76, I2 =0%), repeat revascularization (RR [95% CI]=1.07 [0.92, 1.25], P=0.36, I2 =0%), and stroke (RR [95% CI]=1.01 [0.80, 1.28], P=0.94, I2 =0%). Compared with shorter DAPT, longer DAPT was associated with a significant reduction in MI (RR [95% CI]=1.46 [1.26, 1.69], P<0.00001, I2 =28%) and ST (RR [95% CI]=1.93 [1.45, 2.58], P<0.00001, I2 =32%), and a significant increase in major bleeding (RR [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49, 0.74], P<0.00001, I2 =0%). However, there was no difference in NACE (RR [95% CI]=1.03 [0.91, 1.17], P=0.63, I2 =0%). In subgroup analyses based on stent type, we demonstrated that longer DAPT was associated with a significant reduction in thrombotic events (MI and ST) after first-generation DES implantation (RR [95% CI]=2.58 [1.85, 3.58], I2 =0%) and everolimus-eluting stents (EES, RR [95% CI]=1.54 [1.12, 2.11], I2 =0%). Conversely, there was no difference in thrombotic events in patients with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES, RR [95% CI]=1.17 [0.83, 1.63], I2 =75%) and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES, RR [95% CI]=1.15 [0.74, 1.79]).

CONCLUSIONS: 1) Compared with shorter DAPT, longer DAPT was associated with a significant reduction in thrombotic events (MI and ST) and a higher rate of major bleeding. 2) By the assessment of the trade-off between thrombotic and hemorrhagic events, shorter DAPT was non-inferior to longer DAPT. 3) The benefit of longer DAPT was significant in patients with first-generation DES and EES and weakened with other second-generation DES (ZES and BP-DES).

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