JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Pediatric Heart Failure: A Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Management

Daniele Masarone, Fabio Valente, Marta Rubino, Rossella Vastarella, Rita Gravino, Alessandra Rea, Maria Giovanna Russo, Giuseppe Pacileo, Giuseppe Limongelli
Pediatrics and Neonatology 2017, 58 (4): 303-312
28279666
Pediatric heart failure represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Currently, there are well-established guidelines for the management of heart failure in the adult population, but an equivalent consensus in children is lacking. In the clinical setting, ensuring an accurate diagnosis and defining etiology is essential to optimal treatment. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition are the first-line therapies, whereas beta-blockers and devices for electric therapy are less used in children than in adults. In the end-stage disease, heart transplantation is the best choice of treatment, while a left ventricular assist device can be used as a bridge to transplantation (due to the difficulties in finding organ donors), recovery (in the case of myocarditis), or destination therapy (for patients with systemic disease).

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