The Value of 320-Row Multidetector CT Bronchial Arteriography in Recurrent Hemoptysis after Failed Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

Tian Zhao, Sini Wang, Lili Zheng, Zhongzhi Jia, Yunjun Yang, Weiping Wang, Houzhang Sun
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR 2017, 28 (4): 533-541.e1

PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the value of computed tomographic (CT) bronchial arteriography (BA) with 320-row multidetector CT in the management of patients with recurrent hemoptysis immediately after bronchial artery embolization (BAE).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 135 consecutive patients treated with BAE between April 2014 and March 2016, recurrent hemoptysis developed in 15, and 10 subsequently underwent multidetector CT. Vascular abnormalities and associated anatomy were evaluated to determine the potential cause of BAE failure, and the clinical impacts of CT BA were analyzed.

RESULTS: CT BA revealed an additional 22 abnormal vessels in the qualified 10 patients, and 8 patients were treated again within 24 hours after the first BAE based on multidetector CT findings. Of the 22 abnormal vessels, 16 were embolized, including 4 orthotopic arteries, 8 ectopic arteries, and 4 nonbronchial systemic arteries (NBSAs); the remaining 6 abnormal arteries were not embolized because of normal BA (n = 1), anatomic inaccessibility (n = 2), or cessation of hemoptysis with conservative therapy (n = 3). There were no further cases of recurrent hemoptysis after the second intervention, with a mean follow-up of 7.7 months ± 6.7. Overall, initial conventional BA missed 65% of potential bleeding arteries (22 of 34). After CT BA, 73% of the newly identified vessels (16 of 22) were embolized.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple unrecognized abnormal ectopic bronchial arteries and NBSAs are the major causes of failure of initial BAE. Multidetector CT BA can precisely identify a large number of feeding vessels that are missed on conventional BA, allowing for repeat embolization with a high success rate.


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