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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

Lancet 2017 August 13
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy affecting predominantly the kidney and characterised by a triad of thrombocytopenia, mechanical haemolytic anaemia, and acute kidney injury. The term encompasses several disorders: shiga toxin-induced and pneumococcus-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with complement dysregulation or mutation of diacylglycerol kinase ɛ, haemolytic uraemic syndrome related to cobalamin C defect, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secondary to a heterogeneous group of causes (infections, drugs, cancer, and systemic diseases). In the past two decades, experimental, genetic, and clinical studies have helped to decipher the pathophysiology of these various forms of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and undoubtedly improved diagnostic approaches. Moreover, a specific mechanism-based treatment has been made available for patients affected by atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome due to complement dysregulation. Such treatment is, however, still absent for several other disease types, including shiga toxin-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

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