COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Medication-induced SIADH: distribution and characterization according to medication class.

AIMS: The aims of the current study were to determine the distribution of aetiologies for the drug-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in hospitalized patients, and to characterize them according to the different drug groups.

METHODS: A single-centre retrospective study was carried out, including all patients diagnosed with SIADH in a large community hospital and tertiary centre between 1 January 2007 and 1 January 2013 who were treated with drugs known to be associated with SIADH. Two physicians reviewed every patient's medical file for predetermined relevant clinical data.

RESULTS: The study cohort included 198 patients who had SIADH and received drugs associated with SIADH. Most patients [146 (73.7%)] were diagnosed with drug-associated SIADH, while 52 (26.3%) were diagnosed with SIADH due to other aetiologies. The Naranjo algorithm differentiated well between the two groups (P < 0.001). Five drug classes (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotic agents, cytotoxic agents and pain medications) were implicated in 82.3% of patients diagnosed with drug-associated SIADH. Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors and carbamazepine were commonly implicated. There were no clinically significant differences in the characteristics or severity of SIADH according to drug class.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of SIADH caused by different drugs are comparable. Patients with SIADH treated with drugs from five common medication classes will probably be diagnosed with drug-induced SIADH. Physicians should be aware of the significance of these medication classes as SIADH aetiologies.

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