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Advances in urethral stricture management.

Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0-9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85-90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment. The most common urethroplasty techniques are excision and primary anastomosis and graft onlay urethroplasty. Anastomotic urethroplasty and graft urethroplasty have similar long-term success rates, although long-term data have yet to confirm equal efficacy. Anastomotic urethroplasty may have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. Posterior urethral stenosis is typically caused by previous urologic surgery. It is treated endoscopically with radial incisions. The use of mitomycin C may decrease recurrence. An exciting area of research is tissue engineering and scar modulation to augment stricture treatment. These include the use of acellular matrices or tissue-engineered buccal mucosa to produce grafting material for urethroplasty. Other experimental strategies aim to prevent scar formation altogether.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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