Clinical significance of soluble CD163 in polymyositis-related or dermatomyositis-related interstitial lung disease

Yasunori Enomoto, Yuzo Suzuki, Hironao Hozumi, Kazutaka Mori, Masato Kono, Masato Karayama, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Daisuke Suzuki, Noriyoshi Ogawa, Ran Nakashima, Tsuneyo Mimori, Toshihide Iwashita, Takafumi Suda
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2017 January 19, 19 (1): 9

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation is involved in the pathogenesis of polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). CD163, a scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of activated macrophages, mediates anti-inflammatory functions. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of soluble CD163 (sCD163) in PM/DM-related interstitial lung disease (ILD).

METHODS: The main subjects were 48 patients with PM/DM-related ILD. As controls, 10 patients with PM/DM without ILD and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled. In patients with PM/DM-related ILD, the baseline characteristics and clinical course were obtained through a review of patient medical records. Serum sCD163 levels at ILD diagnosis were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which were compared with the other baseline clinical factors and evaluated for potential as a prognostic biomarker. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis using anti-human CD163 antibody was performed on the lung sections of two patients with DM-related ILD (a survivor and non-survivor, respectively) and one patient with early-stage lung cancer as a normal control.

RESULTS: The median value of serum sCD163 in patients with PM/DM-related ILD was 818 ng/mL, which was higher than that of PM/DM patients without ILD and healthy volunteers (716 ng/mL and 340 ng/mL, respectively). Significant but mild correlations with serum sCD163 levels were observed for serum C-reactive protein levels (r = 0.322) and % predicted forced vital capacity (r = -0.301) in patients with PM/DM-related ILD. A Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that patients with PM/DM-related ILD and higher sCD163 levels had worse prognosis (age-adjusted and gender-adjusted hazard ratio per 100 ng/mL increase 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.45, P <0.001). In immunohistochemistry analysis, compared with normal lung, alveolar infiltration of CD163-positive macrophages was evident in the lungs of patients with DM-related ILD. Especially, the finding was more severe in the non-survivor's lung.

CONCLUSIONS: Serum sCD163 might be a potential biomarker for predicting the severity and prognosis of PM/DM-related ILD. Our results suggest the importance of macrophage activation in the disease.


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