Denosumab treatment of inoperable or locally advanced giant cell tumor of bone

Aneta Borkowska, Tomasz Goryń, Andrzej Pieńkowski, Michał Wągrodzki, Ewelina Jagiełło-Wieczorek, Paweł Rogala, Milena Szacht, Piotr Rutkowski
Oncology Letters 2016, 12 (6): 4312-4318
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an osteolytic, locally aggressive tumor that rarely metastasizes and typically occurs in the bones. At present, the primary treatment for GCTB is curettage with local adjuvants. Giant cells express receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor appears to present an effective therapeutic option in advanced cases of GCTB. The aim of the present study was to confirm the efficacy of denosumab in large group of patients with locally advanced GCTB. A total of 35 patients with histologically confirmed GCTB that were treated with denosumab with no participation in clinical trials between May 2013 and September 2015 were included in the present study. Denosumab treatment was administered until complete tumor resection was feasible or tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity had occurred. The mean denosumab treatment duration was 7.4 months. A total of 17 patients received surgery following denosumab treatment: 11 patients underwent wide en bloc resection with prosthesis implantation in 10 cases and 6 patients were treated with intralesional curettage. Tumor progression was observed in 2 patients that underwent intralesional curettage without prosthesis implantation. In addition, tumor progression was observed during denosumab treatment in 2 patients that had previously undergone radiotherapy. The overall 1-year progression-free survival rate was 92.8%. Thus, for patients with advanced, unresectable, progressive or symptomatic pretreated GCTB, denosumab provides a therapeutic option not previously available, which has become the standard therapy in multidisciplinary management of GCTB.

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