OPEN IN READ APP
JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Sodium-glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors (SGLT2i): Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Management

Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
Current Pharmaceutical Design 2017, 23 (10): 1522-1532
28088910

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin.

METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function.

RESULTS: SGLT2i improve several CV risk factors, including fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, serum uric acid and arterial stiffness. These drugs may also favorably modulate cardiac and renal function via their effects on inflammation, oxidative stress, diuresis, fluid and sodium retention, myocardial function, vascular resistance and 'fuel' metabolism. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study, the first published large CV outcome SGLT2i trial, empagliflozin significantly reduced the primary composite outcome (i.e. CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke) and all-cause death as well as hospitalization for heart failure. In addition, empagliflozin was associated with a slower progression of kidney disease and lower rates of clinically relevant renal events than was placebo when added to standard care in patients at high CV risk.

CONCLUSION: Multiple metabolic benefits may account for the positive clinical outcomes in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study. Ongoing CV outcome trials involving other SGLT2i will help establish whether the reported CV and microvascular risk benefits are compound-specific or drug class effects.

Comments

You need to log in or sign up for an account to be able to comment.

No comments yet, be the first to post one!

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
28088910
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"