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[Ultrasound-guided interventions on the peripheral nervous system].

Der Radiologe 2017 March
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Up to the advent of high-resolution ultrasound, interventions on the peripheral nervous system, including local anesthesia and pain treatment were performed without visual guidance, which in some cases led to treatment failure or local tissue and nerve damage.

METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Progress in the field of ultrasound has enabled the functional visualization, anesthesia and anti-inflammatory or neurolytic treatment of many peripheral nerves, such as the brachial plexus, nerves of the upper and lower extremities and various nerves of the trunk. Contrast medium-guided biopsies have also become feasible.

ACHIEVEMENTS: This article discusses the general prerequisites for such interventions and details the visualization and the interventional algorithms for interventions on the brachial plexus, on large nerves often affected by compression neuropathies, such as the median, ulnar, sciatic and femoral nerves and small nerves, such as the lateral cutaneous nerves of the thigh. Furthermore, contrast medium-aided biopsies of intraneural and perineural masses are discussed. Finally, the treatment of stump neuromas via phenol instillation is described.

PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Innovations in high-resolution ultrasound allow the reliable and safe diagnosis and treatment of various pathologies of the peripheral nervous system with few side effects. Compared to older methods, which did not use visual guidance ultrasound provides higher success rates and lower adverse event rates in many instances.

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