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Obesity as a Risk Factor for Prostatic Enlargement: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Korea.

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate obesity, a risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and its association with prostatic enlargement in a retrospective cohort in Korea.

METHODS: Baseline data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KoGES-ARIRANG). Between March 2015 and November 2015, 2,127 male participants of KoGES-ARIRANG were invited to the Korean Prostate Health Council Screening Program, and 602 participants underwent urological examination, including serum prostate specific antigen measurement and transrectal ultrasonography, and completed the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire. The data for 571 participants were analyzed, after excluding 31 men who had a history of prostatic disease or testosterone replacement, or had undergone a prior prostatic surgery or procedure.

RESULTS: Among components of metabolic syndrome, waist circumference had a statistically significant linear correlation with incremental increases in prostate volume (B=0.181, P=0.004). Abdominal obesity as determined by anthropometric measures including body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.205; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.088-1.336), waist circumference (OR, 1.073; 95% CI, 1.032-1.115), body fat (OR, 1.126; 95% CI, 1.056-1.202), and visceral fat composition (OR, 1.667; 95% CI, 1.246-2.232) was significantly associated with the presence of high-volume benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (prostate volume≥ 40 mL). Furthermore, the highest quartile of serum leptin (OR, 3.541; 95% CI, 1.103-11.365) and adiponectin levels (OR, 0.315; 95% CI, 0.102-0.971) were significantly correlated with high-volume BPH compared to the lowest quartile of levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity and serum leptin level are positively associated with prostate growth, whereas serum adiponectin level is inversely associated with the presence of prostatic enlargement.

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