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Trends in Outcomes and Hospitalization Charges of Infant Botulism in the United States: A Comparative Analysis Between Kids' Inpatient Database and National Inpatient Sample.

Pediatric Neurology 2017 Februrary
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies, including immune globulin intravenous, have emerged in the past two decades for the management of botulism. However, impact on outcomes and hospitalization charges among infants (aged ≤1 year) with botulism in the United States is unknown.

METHODS: We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for in-hospital outcomes and charges for infant botulism cases from 1997 to 2009. Demographics, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges were reported from the two databases and compared.

RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2009, 504 infant hospitalizations were captured in KID', and 340 hospitalizations from NIS, for comparable years. A significant decrease was observed in mean length of stay for 'KID (P < 0.01); a similar decrease was observed for the NIS. The majority of patients were discharged to home. Despite an initial decrease after 1997, an increasing trend was observed for 'KID/NIS mean hospital charges from 2000 to 2009 (from $57,659/$56,309 to $143,171/$106,378; P < 0.001/P < 0.001). A linear increasing trend was evident when examining mean daily hospitalization charges for both databases. In conducting a subgroup analysis of the 'KID database, the youngest patients with infantile botulism (≤1.9 months) displayed the highest average number of procedures during their hospitalization (P < .001) and the highest rate of mechanical ventilation (P < .001), compared with their older counterparts.

CONCLUSION: Infant botulism cases have demonstrated a significant increase in hospitalization charges over the years despite reduced length of stay. Additionally, there were significantly higher daily adjusted hospital charges and an increased rate of routine discharges for immune globulin intravenous-treated patients. More controlled studies are needed to define the criteria for cost-effective use of intravenous immune globulin in the population with infant botulism.

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