JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clinical Factors, Disease Parameters, and Molecular Therapies Affecting Osseointegration of Orthopedic Implants

Hilal Maradit Kremers, Eric A Lewallen, Andre J van Wijnen, David G Lewallen
Current Molecular Biology Reports 2016, 2 (3): 123-132
28008373
Total hip and knee arthroplasty are effective interventions for management of end-stage arthritis. Indeed, about 7 million Americans are currently living with artificial hip and knee joints. The majority of these individuals, however, will outlive their implants and require revision surgeries, mostly due to poor implant osseointegration and aseptic loosening. Revisions are potentially avoidable with better management of patient-related risk factors that affect the osseointegration of orthopedic implants. In this review, we summarize the published clinical literature on the role of demographics, biologic factors, comorbidities, medications and aseptic loosening risk. We focus on several systemic and local factors that are particularly relevant to implant osseointegration. Examples include physiological and molecular processes that are linked to hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia. We discuss how orthopedic implant osseointegration can be affected by a number of molecular therapies that are antiresorptive or bone anabolic (i.e. calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, strontium, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen-receptor modulators).

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