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Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Hospitalization for Infectious Gastroenteritis.

INTRODUCTION: To quantify the association between PPI use, type and dose and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults.

METHODS: Prospective study of 38,019 concession card holders followed up over 6 years in the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study. Data from the baseline questionnaire were linked to prescription medication, hospitalization, notifiable disease, cancer registry and death datasets from 2006-2012. Associations between PPI use and gastroenteritis hospitalization were examined using Cox regressions with age as the underlying time variable.

RESULTS: Among 38,019 participants, the median age was 69.7 years, and 57.3% were women. Compared to non-users, current PPI users were more likely to be older, and have a higher BMI. During follow-up there were 1,982 incident gastroenteritis hospitalizations (crude rate: 12.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 12.3-13.5). PPI use was significantly associated with infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). Among current users, a dose-response relationship was observed between the average daily dose (DDD) dispensed per day and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (Ptrend<0.001). We also observed higher rates of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization and greater PPI use among participants with a history of chronic bowel problems (aHR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.5). There was no difference in risk by type of PPI. Recent use of H2 receptors was not associated with gastroenteritis hospitalization.

CONCLUSION: PPI use is associated with an increased risk of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization. Clinicians should be aware of this risk when considering PPI therapy.

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