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Role of fetal MRI in the evaluation of isolated and non-isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis: results of a cross-sectional study.

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to characterize isolated and non-isolated forms of corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) at fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify early predictors of associated anomalies.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 104 fetuses with CCD undergoing MRI between 2006 and 2016. Corpus callosum, cavum septi pellucidi, biometry, presence of ventriculomegaly, gyration anomalies, cranio-encephalic abnormalities and body malformations were evaluated. Results of genetic tests were also recorded.

RESULTS: At MRI, isolated CCD was 26.9%, the rest being associated to other abnormalities. In the isolated group, median gestational age at MRI was lower in complete agenesis than in hypoplasia (22 vs 28 weeks). In the group with additional findings, cortical dysplasia was the most frequently associated feature (P = 0.008), with a more frequent occurrence in complete agenesis (70%) versus other forms; mesial frontal lobes were more often involved than other cortical regions (P = 0.006), with polymicrogyria as the most frequent cortical malformation (40%). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between complete agenesis and cortical dysplasia (odds ratio = 7.29, 95% confidence interval 1.51-35.21).

CONCLUSIONS: CCD is often complicated by other intra-cranial and extra-cranial findings (cortical dysplasias as the most prevalent) that significantly affect the postnatal prognosis. The present study showed CCD with associated anomalies as more frequent than isolated (73.1%). In isolated forms, severe ventriculomegaly was a reliable herald of future appearance of associated features. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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