Experience of Percutaneous Versus Surgically Placed Catheter for Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage-V

S Afroz, T Ferdaus, S A Khondokar, M H Khan, M Hanif
Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ 2016, 25 (4): 751-758
The lifespan and outcome of end stage renal disease (ESRD) children have dramatically improved since the development of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), it offers several advantages over hemodialysis. Percutaneous placement of CAPD catheters in children is minimally invasive, reliable, safe and cost-effective method. Percutaneous method of CAPD catheter insertion can be used in children to avoid the complications of general anesthesia and surgery. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of CAPD in children, to find out the complication profile of CAPD & to compare the advantages of surgical versus percutaneously placed CAPD catheters in children. This prospective longitudinal comparative study was carried out in the department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2014. A total of 8 children with ESRD were included (Age 5-14 year, M: F=1: 1). All underwent CAPD, Group I = surgically placed CAPD catheter (N=5), Group II = percutaneously placed CAPD catheter (N=3). Average duration of CAPD in Group I and Group II were 31.6 vs. 9 (months) with a total of 158 vs. 27 patient months of CAPD respectively. The rate of complications of the 2 groups and their outcome were compared. Common complications being observed were peritonitis 1 episode per 12.1 vs. 1.8 patient months (p<0.001), catheter obstruction by omental capture 1 vs. 3 in Group I and Group II respectively. Catheter tip dislocation was commonly found in all Group II children (p<0.01) and all needed laparotomy and omentectomy. Three out of 5 in Group I is still on CAPD, 1 transferred to HD and another 1 expired due to uncontrolled hypertension with congestive heart failure. Among 3 of Group II, 2 died of repeated peritonitis and hypertensive complications and rest 1 is transferred to HD after 1year due to exit site fluid leaking. Satisfactory level of improvement of mean weight, mean serum albumin and declining of serum creatinine in both groups has been found after CAPD. Although CAPD is an effective modality of renal replacement therapy for children, but percutaneous method of catheter insertion is associated with higher rate of complications. Placement of catheter by surgical method with elective omentectomy will reduce catheter related complications. Early detection of peritonitis and prompt therapy is essential for a favourable outcome.

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