Aneurysmal degeneration of brachial artery in kidney transplant receptors after arteriovenous fistula ligation

Ruth Fuente Garrido, Jose Antonio Brizuela Sanz, Ana Francisca Sanchez Santiago, Diana Gutiérrez Castillo, Enrique M San Norberto García, Carlos Vaquero Puerta
Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular 2015, 22 (2): 109-113

OBJECTIVES: True brachial artery aneurysms are. Recent case reports have suggested aneurysmal degeneration of brachial artery in kidney transplant receptors after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) ligation. We present a study on the evolution of the brachial artery in this context in our center.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study in kidney transplant receptors in whom AVF was ligated between 2008 and 2015. Patients with AVF in both upper limbs were excluded. Diameters of axillary artery, brachial artery in middle portion and its bifurcation, as well as brachial artery flow were measured using Dupplex ultrasound in AVF and contralateral limb. Both groups were compared using the Student t-test for paired samples.

RESULTS: 20 patients were included in the study and had a mean age of 59.35 ± 2.49 years. The median time of use of AVF for hemodialysis was 729 days (range 120-6117) and the median time in which AVF was patent was 2261 days (range 791-7091). Mean diameters (in mm) of axillary artery, brachial in middle portion and bifurcation were respectively 9.33 ± 1.07, 7.5 ± 0.61 and 5.81 ± 0.43 in AVF arm and 5.6 ± 2.8, 4.4 ± 0.1, 4.9 ± 0.15 in control limb, finding statistically significant differences (p <0.01) in brachial and axillary arteries. 5 patients (25%) developed aneurysm, 2 of which (10%) underwent surgery and 3 are on follow up.

CONCLUSION: True incidence of brachial artery aneurysm in kidney receptors following AVF ligation is high. Careful follow up with physical examination and dupplex scanning are needed to find this complication.

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