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Cold agglutinin disease.

Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-defined clinicopathologic entity in which a specific, clonal lymphoproliferative B-cell bone marrow disorder results in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The immune hemolysis is entirely complement-dependent, predominantly mediated by activation of the classical pathway and phagocytosis of erythrocytes opsonized with complement protein C3b. Typical clinical features in CAD have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Pharmacologic treatment should be offered to patients with symptom-producing anemia or disabling circulatory symptoms. CAD should not be treated with corticosteroids. Based on an individualized approach, rituximab monotherapy or rituximab-fludarabine in combination is recommended as first-line therapy. Rituximab-bendamustine is still an investigational therapy. Although complement-modulating agents are still to be considered experimental in CAD, therapy with the anti-C1s monoclonal antibody TNT009 seems promising.

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