A novel long non-coding RNA lnc-GNAT1-1 is low expressed in colorectal cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor through regulating RKIP-NF-κB-Snail circuit

Chunxiang Ye, Zhanlong Shen, Bo Wang, Yansen Li, Tao Li, Yang Yang, Kewei Jiang, Yingjiang Ye, Shan Wang
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR 2016 December 3, 35 (1): 187

BACKGROUND: The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression has not fully been elucidated. This study was designed to report the identification of a novel lncRNA, lnc-GNAT1-1, and its functional role in CRC progression.

METHODS: lncRNA expression profile microarray was performed in three paired primary and liver metastatic tissues of CRC, and a novel lncRNA, lnc-GNAT1-1, was identified to be a potential functional lncRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect its expression in CRC tissues, cell lines, and patients' plasma, cell fractionation was used to evaluate its subcellular location. lnc-GNAT1-1 was knockdown by siRNA or overexpressed by a lentivirus vector, then in vitro an vivo experiments were performed to evaluate its biological role and the underlying mechanisms in CRC.

RESULTS: Expression of lnc-GNAT1-1 was decreased in liver metastasis than the primary tumor, while the later one is lower than the paired normal mucosa. Decreased lnc-GNAT1-1 expression was associated unfavorable clinicopathological features and a poor prognosis of CRC patients. In multivariate analysis, lnc-GNAT1-1 was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. In plasma, lnc-GNAT1-1 was significant decreased in CRC patients than healthy donors, and with the TNM stages advanced, the plasma lnc-GNAT1-1 level decreased; Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) showed that plasma lnc-GNAT1-1 had a moderate to well diagnostic efficiency for CRC. In vitro experiments showed that knockdown of lnc-GNAT1-1 could inhibit the aggressive phenotypes of CRC cell lines. In vivo study showed that overexpression of lnc-GNAT1-1 could suppress the liver metastasis of CRC cells. Finally, we explored the underlying mechanism of the role lnc-GNAT1-1 plays in CRC, and found a positive correlation between lnc-GNAT1-1 and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) expression both in cells and in patients' tissues. We further found that lnc-GNAT1-1 could regulate the RKIP-NF-κB-Snail circuit in CRC.

CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated in this study that a novel lncRNA, lnc-GNAT1-1, is low expressed in colorectal cancer tissues and plasma, and acts as a tumor suppressor through regulating RKIP-NF-κB-Snail circuit.

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