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Frequency and Associated Factors of Amphotericin B Nephrotoxicity in Hospitalized Patients in Hematology-Oncology Wards in the Southwest of Iran.

Nephro-urology Monthly 2016 September
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the most clinically significant adverse reaction of amphotericin B. Different aspects of amphotericin B (AmB) nephrotoxicity have not been studied well in our population.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, time onset, and possible associated factors of AmB nephrotoxicity in hospitalized patients in hematology-oncology wards in the southwest of Iran.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed over a period of 9 months at 2 hematology-oncology and 1 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation wards at Namazi Hospital. Patients aged 15 years or older with no documented history of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease who were scheduled to receive formulations of AmB intravenously for at least 1 week were included. The required demographic and clinical data of the patients were recorded. Urine urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and magnesium levels were measured at days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 of the AmB treatment. AmB nephrotoxicity based on serum creatinine increase, renal potassium wasting, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia were determined.

RESULTS: Among the 40 patients recruited for the study, 11 (27.5%) patients developed AmB nephrotoxicity with a mean ± standard deviation onset of 6.73 ± 2.36 days. In 5 patients, AmB nephrotoxicity resolved spontaneously without any intervention. According to the multivariate logistic regression model, none of the studied demographic, clinical, and paraclinical variables were significantly associated with AmB nephrotoxicity. The duration of hospitalization (P = 0.541) and the mortality rate (P = 0.723) were comparable between the patients with and without AmB nephrotoxicity. Hypokalemia and renal potassium wasting were identified in 45% and 27.5% of the patients during AmB treatment, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one-third (27.5%) of our cohort developed nephrotoxicity within the first week of AmB treatment. Hypokalemia and renal potassium wasting were more notable, affecting about one-half and one-third of the AmB recipients, respectively.

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