Wisconsin Card Sorting Test embedded validity indicators developed for adults can be extended to children

Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Laszlo A Erdodi, Jaspreet K Rai, Anya Mazur-Mosiewicz, Lloyd Flaro
Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence 2018, 24 (2): 247-260
Past studies have examined the ability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to discriminate valid from invalid performance in adults using both individual embedded validity indicators (EVIs) and multivariate approaches. This study is designed to investigate whether the two most stable of these indicators-failures to maintain set (FMS) and the logistical regression equation S-BLRE -can be extended to pediatric populations. The classification accuracy for FMS and S-BLRE was examined in a mixed clinical sample of 226 children aged 7 to 17 years (64.6% male, MAge = 13.6 years) against a combination of established performance validity tests (PVTs). The results show that at adult cutoffs, FMS and S-BLRE produce an unacceptably high failure rate (33.2% and 45.6%) and low specificity (.55-.72), but an upward adjustment in cutoffs significantly improves classification accuracy. Defining Pass as <2 and Fail as ≥4 on FMS results in consistently good specificity (.89-.92) but low and variable sensitivity (.00-.33). Similarly, cutting the S-BLRE distribution at 3.68 produces good specificity (.90-.92) but variable sensitivity (.06-.38). Passing or failing FMS or S-BLRE is unrelated to age, gender and IQ. The data from this study suggest that in a pediatric sample, adjusted cutoffs on the FMS and S-BLRE ensure good specificity, but with low or variable sensitivity. Thus, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a response set. At the same time, they can make valuable contributions to pediatric neuropsychology by providing empirically-supported, expedient and cost-effective indicators to enhance performance validity assessment.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"