Comprehensive assessment of myositis-specific autoantibodies in polymyositis/dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung disease

Hironao Hozumi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Ran Nakashima, Takeshi Johkoh, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Akihiro Murakami, Noriyuki Enomoto, Naoki Inui, Yutaro Nakamura, Yuji Hosono, Yoshitaka Imura, Tsuneyo Mimori, Takafumi Suda
Respiratory Medicine 2016, 121: 91-99

OBJECTIVES: Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are associated with clinical phenotypes in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). No study has investigated the clinical features based on comprehensive MSA assessment in PM/DM-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to determine the practical significance of MSAs in PM/DM-ILD.

METHODS: Sixty consecutive PM/DM-ILD patients were retrospectively analysed. Serum MSAs were comprehensively measured using immunoprecipitation assay. Clinical features and prognosis were compared among MSA subgroups.

RESULTS: Twenty-six (43.3%) PM/DM-ILD patients were anti-aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase antibody-positive (anti-ARS-positive), 15 (25.0%) were anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive (anti-MDA5-positive), 3 (5%) were anti-signal recognition particle antibody-positive, 1 (1.7%) was anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1-gamma antibody-positive, and 15 (25%) were MSA-negative. There were significant differences in clinical features, including ILD form, serum ferritin and surfactant protein-D levels at ILD diagnosis, and high-resolution CT pattern among the anti-ARS-positive, anti-MDA5-positive and MSA-negative groups. The anti-MDA5-positive group showed the lowest 90-day survival rate (66.7%, anti-MDA5-positive; 100%, anti-ARS-positive; 100%, MSA-negative; P < 0.01). The anti-ARS-positive group had the highest 5-year survival rate (96%, anti-ARS-positive; 66.7%, anti-MDA5-positive; 68.3%, MSA-negative, P = 0.02). Univariate analysis revealed that anti-ARS antibody was associated with better prognosis (HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89; P = 0.02), whereas anti-MDA5 antibody was associated with poorer prognosis (HR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-3.39; P = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive MSA assessment demonstrated that anti-ARS and anti-MDA5 antibodies were two major MSAs, and the clinical features differed depending on MSA status in PM/DM-ILD. Assessment of anti-ARS and anti-MDA5 antibodies is practically useful for predicting clinical course and prognosis in PM/DM-ILD patients.

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