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Echocardiographic diagnosis of anomalous pulmonary venous connections: Experience of 84 cases from 1 medical center.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 November
We sought to evaluate the value of echocardiography in the diagnosis of different types of anomalous pulmonary venous connections (APVCs) and summarize the diagnostic experience. A total of 84 patients with APVC were confirmed by surgery (n = 82) or computerized tomography angiography (CTA) (n = 2) in the last 6 years (2008-2014) at the Wuhan Union Hospital. The total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) cases account for 60.7%, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) cases account for 39.3% among the 84 cases that were identified. The 51 TAPVCs were classified by the Darling method-type I (41.1%), type II (52.9%), type III (1.9%), and type IV (3.9%). The most common drainage path of type I was common pulmonary drainage to the left innominate vein via vertical vein, and the coronary sinus drainage was the most common path in type II. Compared with surgical or CTA results, the sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography in the diagnosis of APVCs were 97.6% and 99.9%, respectively. The echocardiography misdiagnoses were mainly seen in PAPVCs. Of the TAPVCs and PAPVCs correctly diagnosed by echocardiography, the diagnostic accuracy of classification were 94% and 100%, respectively. Echocardiography has specific value in diagnosing and classification of APVC, especially the supracardiac and cardiac TAPVCs. Multiplane scan views and color Doppler improve the display of drainage pathway.

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