JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Current Management of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures: A Multidisciplinary Survey and Literature Review.

Despite the prevalence of zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, there is no consensus regarding the best approach to management. The aim of this study is to determine differences in ZMC fracture treatment among various surgical specialties. A survey was conducted regarding treatment of patients with different ZMC fractures that included a minimally displaced fracture (Case 1), a displaced fracture without diplopia (Case 2), a displaced fracture with diplopia (Case 3), and a complex comminuted fracture (Case 4). The survey was distributed to members of plastic surgery, oral maxillofacial surgery, and otolaryngology societies. The rates of surgical treatment, exploration of the orbital floor, and plating three or more buttresses were analyzed among the specialties. A total of 173 surgeons participated (46 plastic and reconstructive surgeons, 25 oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and 102 otolaryngologists). In Case 1, a significantly higher percentage of plastic surgeons recommend an operation ( p  < 0.01) compared with other specialties. More than 90% of surgeons would perform an operation on Case 2. Plastic surgeons explored the orbital floor ( p  < 0.01) and also fixated three or more buttresses more frequently ( p  < 0.01). More than 93% of surgeons would operate on Case 3, with plastic surgeons having the greatest proportion who fixed three or more buttresses ( p  < 0.01). In Case 4, there was no difference in treatment patterns between specialties. Across the specialties, more fixation was placed by surgeons with fewer years in practice (<10 years). Conclusion There is no consensus on standard treatment of ZMC fractures, as made evident by the survey. Significant variability in fracture type warrants an individualized approach to management. A thorough review on ZMC fracture management is provided.

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