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Heat Shock Protein 90 Facilitates Latent HIV Reactivation through Maintaining the Function of Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor b (p-TEFb) under Proteasome Inhibition

Xiao-Yan Pan, Wei Zhao, Chun-Yan Wang, Jian Lin, Xiao-Yun Zeng, Ru-Xia Ren, Keng Wang, Tian-Rong Xun, Yechiel Shai, Shu-Wen Liu
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2016 December 9, 291 (50): 26177-26187
The persistence of HIV in resting memory CD4+ T cells at a latent state is considered as the major barrier on the path to achieve a cure for HIV. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) were previously reported as latency reversing agents (LRAs) but the mechanism underlying this function is yet unclear. Here we demonstrate that PIs reactivate latent HIV ex vivo without global T cell activation, and may facilitate host innate immune responses. Mechanistically, latent HIV reactivation induced by PIs is mediated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) via the recruitment of the heat shock protein (HSP) 90-positive transcriptional elongation factor b (p-TEFb) complex. Specifically, HSP90 downstream HSF1 gives positive feedback to the reactivation process through binding to cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and preventing it from undergoing degradation by the proteasome. Overall, these findings suggest proteasome inhibitors as potential latency reversing agents. In addition, HSF1/HSP90 involved in HIV transcription elongation, may serve as therapeutic targets in HIV eradication.


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