Efficacy of High-Dose Meropenem (Six Grams per Day) in Treatment of Experimental Murine Pneumonia Induced by Meropenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Kazuhiro Oshima, Shigeki Nakamura, Naoki Iwanaga, Koji Takemoto, Taiga Miyazaki, Kastunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Izumikawa
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2017, 61 (1)
High-dose meropenem (MEPM; 6 g/day) has been approved as a treatment for purulent meningitis; however, little is known regarding its in vivo efficacy in refractory lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MEPM at 6 g/day in a murine model of severe pneumonia caused by MEPM-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Experimental pneumonia induced by MEPM-resistant P. aeruginosa was treated with normal-dose MEPM (150 mg/kg of body weight, simulating a 3-g/day regimen in humans) or high-dose MEPM (500 mg/kg, simulating a 6-g/day regimen in humans). Mice treated with high-dose MEPM showed significantly restored survival relative to that of untreated mice and tended to show a survival rate higher than that of mice treated with normal-dose MEPM. The viable bacterial counts (of two clinical isolates) in the lungs decreased significantly in mice treated with high-dose MEPM from those for untreated mice (P < 0.001) or mice treated with normal-dose MEPM (P, <0.01 and <0.05). The number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also significantly lower in mice treated with high-dose MEPM than in untreated mice. The free MEPM concentration in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) exceeded 16 μg/ml for 85 min in mice treated with high-dose MEPM, but not for mice treated with normal-dose MEPM. Our results demonstrate that high-dose MEPM (6 g/day) might provide better protection against pneumonia caused by MEPM-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa than the dose normally administered (less than 3 g/day).

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