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Soluble pre-fibrillar tau and β-amyloid species emerge in early human Alzheimer's disease and track disease progression and cognitive decline

David J Koss, Glynn Jones, Anna Cranston, Heidi Gardner, Nicholas M Kanaan, Bettina Platt
Acta Neuropathologica 2016, 132 (6): 875-895
27770234
Post-mortem investigations of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have largely failed to provide unequivocal evidence in support of the original amyloid cascade hypothesis, which postulated deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates to be the cause of a demented state as well as inductive to tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Conflicting evidence suggests, however, that Aβ plaques and NFTs, albeit to a lesser extent, are present in a substantial subset of non-demented individuals. Hence, a range of soluble tau and Aβ species has more recently been implicated as the disease-relevant toxic entities. Despite the incorporation of soluble proteins into a revised amyloid cascade hypothesis, a detailed characterization of these species in the context of human AD onset, progression and cognitive decline has been lacking. Here, lateral temporal lobe samples (Brodmann area 21) of 46 human cases were profiled via tau and Aβ Western blot and native state dot blot protocols. Elevations in phospho-tau (antibodies: CP13, AT8 and PHF-1), pathological tau conformations (MC-1) and oligomeric tau (TOC1) agreed with medical diagnosis (non-AD cf. AD) and Braak stage classification (low, intermediate and high), alongside elevations in soluble Aβ species (MOAB-2 and pyro-glu Aβ) and a decline in levels of the amyloid precursor protein. Strong correlations were observed between individual Braak stages and multiple cognitive measures with all tau markers as well as total soluble Aβ. In contrast to previous reports, SDS-stable Aβ oligomers (*56) were not found to be reliable for all classifications and appeared likely to be a technical artefact. Critically, the robust predictive value of total soluble Aβ was dependent on native state quantification. Elevations in tau and Aβ within soluble fractions (Braak stage 2-3 cf. 0) were evident earlier than previously established in fibril-focused disease progression scales. Together, these data provide strong evidence that soluble forms of tau and Aβ co-localise early in AD and are closely linked to disease progression and cognitive decline.

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