Pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis: Diagnosis, management, risk factors, and incidence.
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has been the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis who require surgery. Quality of life after this procedure is satisfactory in most cases; however, pouchitis is a troublesome condition involving inflammation of the ileal pouch. When a patient presents with symptoms of pouchitis, such as increased bowel movements, mucous and/or bloody exudates, abdominal cramps, and fever, endoscopy is essential for a precise diagnosis. The proximal ileum and rectal cuff, as well as the ileal pouch, should be endoscopically observed. The reported incidence of pouchitis ranges from 14% to 59%, and antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment for acute pouchitis. Chronic pouchitis includes antibiotic-dependent and refractory pouchitis. Intensive therapy including antitumor necrosis factor antibodies and steroids may be necessary for antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, and pouch failure may occur despite such intensive treatment. Reported risk factors for the development of pouchitis include presence of extraintestinal manifestations, primary sclerosing cholangitis, non-smoking, and postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage. In the present review, we focus on the diagnosis, endoscopic features, management, incidence, and risk factors of pouchitis in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.
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