Late recurrence of left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve replacement for severe chronic aortic regurgitation

Masashi Amano, Chisato Izumi, Sari Imamura, Naoaki Onishi, Yodo Tamaki, Soichiro Enomoto, Makoto Miyake, Toshihiro Tamura, Hirokazu Kondo, Kazuaki Kaitani, Kazuo Yamanaka, Yoshihisa Nakagawa
International Journal of Cardiology 2016 December 1, 224: 240-244

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) with a decreased ejection fraction (EF) leads to improvement in left ventricular (LV) function, but there are no reports on late recurrence of LV dysfunction over long-term after AVR. This study aimed to identify frequency and predictors of late recurrent LV dysfunction after AVR.

METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 58 consecutive patients undergoing AVR for severe chronic AR and with follow-up echocardiography for >5years after AVR. Late recurrence of LV dysfunction was defined as an EF of <50% late after AVR and a 10% reduction in the EF compared with that observed at 1year after AVR.

RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 10.3±5.2years. The preoperative EF was <50% in 21 (36%) patients, but it was normalized at 1year after AVR in all patients except for one. However, late recurrence of LV dysfunction developed in 7 (12%) of the 58 patients. These patients showed significantly higher LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters before and at 1year after AVR, a lower EF and relative wall thickness before AVR, a higher LV mass index at 1year after AVR, and a higher incidence of preoperative and postoperative atrial fibrillation than those without late recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS: Late recurrent LV dysfunction may occur after AVR for severe chronic AR despite EF being once normalized. Early surgery proceeding remarkable LV enlargement and maintaining sinus rhythm are important for LV function over the long-term after AVR.

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