Ultrasonic Processing Technique as a Green Preparation Approach for Diacerein-Loaded Niosomes

Muhammad Imran Khan, Asadullah Madni, Jouni Hirvonen, Leena Peltonen
AAPS PharmSciTech 2017, 18 (5): 1554-1563
In this study, the feasibility of ultrasonic processing (UP) technique as green preparation method for production of poorly soluble model drug substance, diacerein, loaded niosomes was demonstrated. Also, the effects of different surfactant systems on niosomes' characteristics were analyzed. Niosomes were prepared using both the green UP technique and traditional thin-film hydration (TFH) technique, which requires the use of environmentally hazardous organic solvents. The studied surfactant systems were Span 20, Pluronic L64, and their mixture (Span 20 and Pluronic L64). Both the production techniques produced well-defined spherical vesicles, but the UP technique produced smaller and more monodisperse niosomes than TFH. The entrapment efficiencies with the UP method were lower than with TFH, but still at a feasible level. All the niosomal formulations released diacerein faster than pure drug, and the drug release rates from the niosomes produced by the UP method were higher than those from the TFH-produced niosomes. With UP technique, the optimum process conditions for small niosomal products with low PDI values and high entrapment efficiencies were obtained when 70% amplitude and 45-min sonication time were used. The overall results demonstrated the potency of UP technique as an alternative fast, cost-effective, and green preparation approach for production of niosomes, which can be utilized as drug carrier systems for poorly soluble drug materials.


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