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[Early and one-stage posterior-anterior surgery for fresh and severe lower cervical spine fracture and dislocation]

Chunyue Duan, Jianzhong Hu, Xiyang Wang, Jianhuang Wu
Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences 2016, 41 (8): 838-45

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical value of early and one-stage posterior laminectomy decompression, fracture reconstruction and lateral mess screw fixation combined with anterior cervical corpectomy or discectomy for the treatment of fresh and severe lower cervical spine fracture and dislocation.

METHODS: A total of 156 consecutive cases of severe fracture and dislocation of lower cervical spine were reviewed from January 2008 to January 2015. Skull traction was installed when the patients were enrolled in the hospital, so the operation was performed as early as possible. Firstly, the posterior procedure was applied to the patients prone on a frame. A standard posterior laminectomy, fixation and fusion were performed with lateral mass screws and rods. The cervical spine reconstruction was achieved by laminecomy, partially facetectomy, leverage and distraction. The technique of rotating rod was applied to recover the sequence of the cervical and keep or increase the zygopophysis and lordosis of the cervical on the sagittal plane. After the skull traction removed, a standard anterior approach to the cervical spine was initiated as the second stage of the procedure. Anterior cervical corpectomy or discectomy, spinal cord decompression, antograft and cervical spine auto-locking plate fixation were carried out. The stability, the fusion rate of the injured segments and spinal cord decompression were observed on the regular postoperative X-ray film and CT scan. The function of the spinal cord was evaluated by American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification.

RESULTS: A total of 137 cases were followed-up, 19 failed to follow-up and 8 of them were due to death. The follow-up time was from 9.0 months to 35.0 months (mean: 13.7 months). All patients got completely reduction of the cervical spine. The injured segments were stable. There was no patient of bone graft no-fusion. The cervical intervertebral height and lordosis were reconstructed and maintained and all grafts were fused at the end of follow-up period. There was no complication related to internal fixation breakage, loosening or displacement. There was also no neurovascular and esophagus complications during the operation. Twelve patients complained neck pain at the final follow-up. There were 12 cases of wound infection and 12 cases of neck inflammatory. They were healed after anti-inflammatory therapy. There were 13 cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and they were healed after the symptomatic treatment. The neuro-function of most patients was improved, and ASIA classification was improved by 1 to 2 grade.

CONCLUSION: Early and one-stage posterior-anterior decompression and reconstruction for the patients with fresh and severe lower cervical spine fracture and dislocation can achieve good reduction and cervical alignment of cervical spine. The injured segments can gain postoperative immediate stability. It also gives a completely decompression, which is benefit to the patients for nursing, functional exercise, and the functional recovery of the spinal cord.


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