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The Surgical Outcome of Traumatic Extraaxial Hematomas Causing Brain Herniation.

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the surgical outcome and the prognostic importance of clinical and radiological data of patients operated emergently for an extraaxial hematoma causing brain herniation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 108 adult patients who were operated due to herniated traumatic extraaxial hematomas from January 2000 to January 2013.

RESULTS: Of 108 patients, 63 patients (58.3%) were diagnosed as subdural hematoma (SDH), and 45 patients (41.7%) as epidural hematoma (EDH). An unfavorable outcome was significantly increased for patients who were diagnosed as SDH (90.4%) compared with EDH patients (33.3%). Mortality rate for herniated SDH patients was 65.1%, and 26.6% for herniated EDH patients. High mortality and unfavorable outcome ratios were associated with Glasgow Coma Scale scores at admission, mean postoperative intracranial pressure (ICP) values, type of the brain herniation, interval from the time of trauma to the time of hematoma decompression, the duration of the brain herniation, intraoperative acute brain swelling, hematoma volume and thickness, degree of the midline shift and the obliteration of the basal cisterns.

CONCLUSION: Our data showed that, postoperative ICP values were one most important predictor of the mortality. We recommended postoperative ICP monitoring for all patients presenting with the brain herniation due to traumatic extraaxial hematoma.

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