[Causative agents of superficial mycoses isolated in Dakar, Senegal: Retrospective study from 2011 to 2015]

K Diongue, M A Diallo, M Ndiaye, A S Badiane, M C Seck, A Diop, Y D Ndiaye, D Ndiaye
Journal de Mycologie Médicale 2016, 26 (4): 368-376

INTRODUCTION: Superficial fungal infections, particularly of the skin, scalp and nails are very common and have been reported worldwide. The most common causative agents of these mycoses are dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. However, these agents vary with time and depend on many factors including the geography. The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of superficial mycoses diagnosed at the Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar (Senegal).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned 1851 outpatients received in the parasitological and mycological laboratory of Le Dantec hospital during the period from January 2011 to December 2015. Every patient benefited from direct examination and mycological culture.

RESULTS: Among the 1851 patients, 633 were confirmed with superficial mycoses and the prevalence was 34.2 %. The age of patients ranged from two months to 81 years with a mean age of 31 years. Superficial mycoses were found more in women (70.3 %) than men (29.7 %) and a little more than thirty-nine percent (39.3 %) were adults. The causative agents identified were: dermatophytes (58 %), yeast (36.7 %) and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi (NDFF, 5.3 %). The most isolated species were: Candida albicans (26.9 %), Trichophyton soudanense (24.9 %) and T. rubrum (13.7 %). These fungi were responsible for different clinical aspects, isolated and other associated. Among the isolated clinical aspects, those affecting hair (tinea capitis) were by far the largest with 44.8 %, followed by tinea unguium (34.5 %). Associations were especially type of tinea capitis and tinea manuum (2.4 %) and toenails onychomycosis associated with interdigital tinea pedis (2.7 %). Tinea capitis agents were exclusively dermatophytes and the predominant agent was T. soudanense with 47,8 %. Tinea unguium agents were yeast (79 %), dermatophytes (18 %) or NDFF (3 %) and the most found species was C. albicans (63.9 %). Dermatophytes, yeasts and molds were respectively found more in children and young adults, older adults and young adults and older adults and the elderly.

CONCLUSION: In definitive, these epidemiological data should enable better diagnostic and therapeutic management of superficial mycoses.

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