Early Outcomes of Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty After Prior Lumbar Spinal Fusion

Jeffrey J Barry, David C Sing, Thomas P Vail, Erik N Hansen
Journal of Arthroplasty 2017, 32 (2): 470-474

BACKGROUND: The coexistence of degenerative hip disease and spinal pathology is not uncommon with the number of surgical treatments performed for each condition increasing annually. The limited research available suggests spinal pathology portends less pain relief and worse outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We hypothesize that primary THA patients with preexisting lumbar spinal fusions (LSF) experience worse early postoperative outcomes.

METHODS: This study is a retrospective matched cohort study. Primary THA patients at 1 institution who had undergone prior LSF (spine arthrodesis-hip arthroplasty [SAHA]) were identified and matched to controls of primary THA without LSF. Early outcomes (<90 days) were compared.

RESULTS: From 2012 to 2014, 35 SAHA patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Patients were similar in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, body mass index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. SAHA patients had higher rates of complications (31.4% vs 8.6%, P = .008), reoperation (14.3% vs 2.9%, P = .040), and general anesthesia (54.3% vs 5.7%, P = .0001). Bivariate analysis demonstrated SAHA to predict reoperation (odds ratio, 5.67; P = .045) and complications (odds ratio, 4.89; P = .005). With the numbers available, dislocations (0% vs 2.8%), infections (0% vs 8.6%), readmissions, postoperative walking distance, and disposition only trended to favor controls (P > .05). Comparing controls to SAHA patients with <3 or ≥3 levels fused, longer fusions had increased cumulative postoperative narcotic consumption (mean morphine equivalents, 44.3 vs 46.9 vs 169.4; P = .001).

CONCLUSION: Patients with preexisting LSF experience worse early outcomes after primary THA including higher rates of complications and reoperation. Lower rates of neuraxial anesthesia and increased narcotic usage represent potential contributors. The complex interplay between the lumbar spine and hip warrants attention and further investigation.

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