Fully covered self-expanding metal stents versus lumen-apposing fully covered self-expanding metal stent versus plastic stents for endoscopic drainage of pancreatic walled-off necrosis: clinical outcomes and success

Ali A Siddiqui, Thomas E Kowalski, David E Loren, Ammara Khalid, Ayesha Soomro, Syed M Mazhar, Laura Isby, Michel Kahaleh, Kunal Karia, Joseph Yoo, Andrew Ofosu, Beverly Ng, Reem Z Sharaiha
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2017, 85 (4): 758-765

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic transmural drainage/debridement of pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON) has been performed using double-pigtail plastic (DP), fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs), or the novel lumen-apposing fully covered self-expanding metal stent (LAMS). Our aim was to perform a retrospective cohort study to compare the clinical outcomes and adverse events of EUS-guided drainage/debridement of WON with DP stents, FCSEMSs, and LAMSs.

METHODS: Consecutive patients in 2 centers with WON managed by EUS-guided debridement were divided into 3 groups: (1) those who underwent debridement using DP stents, (2) debridement using FCSEMSs, (3) debridement using LAMSs. Technical success (ability to access and drain a WON by placement of transmural stents), early adverse events, number of procedures performed per patient to achieve WON resolution, and long-term success (complete resolution of the WON without need for further reintervention at 6 months after treatment) were evaluated.

RESULTS: From 2010 to 2015, 313 patients (23.3% female; mean age, 53 years) underwent WON debridement, including 106 who were drained using DP stents, 121 using FCSEMSs, and 86 using LAMSs. The 3 groups were matched for age, cause of the pancreatitis, WON size, and location. The cause of the patients' pancreatitis was gallstones (40.6%), alcohol (30.7%), idiopathic (13.1%), and other causes (15.6%). The mean cyst size was 102 mm (range, 20-510 mm). The mean number of endoscopy sessions was 2.5 (range, 1-13). The technical success rate of stent placement was 99%. Early adverse events were noted in 27 of 313 (8.6%) patients (perforation in 6, bleeding in 8, suprainfection in 9, other in 7). Successful endoscopic therapy was noted in 277 of 313 (89.6%) patients. When comparing the 3 groups, there was no difference in the technical success (P = .37). Early adverse events were significantly lower in the FCSEMS group compared with the DP and LAMS groups (1.6%, 7.5%, and 9.3%; P < .01). At 6-month follow-up, the rate of complete resolution of WON was lower with DP stents compared with FCSEMSs and LAMSs (81% vs 95% vs 90%; P = .001). The mean number of procedures required for WON resolution was significantly lower in the LAMS group compared with the FCSEMS and DP groups (2.2 vs 3 vs 3.6, respectively; P = .04). On multivariable analysis, DP stents remain the sole negative predictor for successful resolution of WON (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.53; P = .002) after adjusting for age, sex, and WON size. Although there was no significant difference between FCSEMSs and LAMSs for WON resolution, the LAMS was more likely to have early adverse events (OR, 6.6; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided drainage/debridement of WON using FCSEMSs and LAMSs is superior to DP stents in terms of overall treatment efficacy. The number of procedures required for WON resolution was significantly lower with LAMSs compared with FCSEMSs and DP stents.

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