Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a PKC δ-Mediated, Redox-Dependent Signaling Pathway

Xiaoping Xu, Shibo Sun, Fang Xie, Juanjuan Ma, Jing Tang, Shuying He, Lan Bai
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2017 July 1, 27 (1): 37-56

AIMS: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered a fundamental mechanism in complications of Crohn's disease (CD), especially intestinal fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying EMT regulation in intestinal fibrosis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in the occurrence of intestinal EMT.

RESULTS: AOPPs accumulated in CD tissues and were associated with EMT marker expression in fibrotic lesions from CD patients. Challenge with AOPPs induced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) phenotype transdifferentiation, fibroblast-like phenotype acquisition, and production of extracellular matrix, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of AOPPs was mainly mediated by a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-mediated redox-dependent pathway, including phosphorylation of PKC δ, recruitment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, production of reactive oxygen species, and NF-κB p65 activation. Inhibition of AOPP-redox signaling activation effectively blocked AOPP-induced EMT in vitro. Studies performed in normal rats showed that chronic administration of AOPPs triggered the occurrence of EMT in rat intestinal epithelia, accompanied by disruption of intestinal integrity, and by promotion of collagen deposition. These effects could be reversed by inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Innovation and Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate that AOPPs triggered the occurrence of EMT in IECs in vitro and in vivo through PKC δ-mediated redox-dependent signaling. Our study identifies the role of AOPPs and, in turn, EMT in intestinal fibrosis and provides novel potential targets for the treatment of intestinal fibrotic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 37-56.

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