JOURNAL ARTICLE

Spoligotype diversity and 5-year trends of bovine tuberculosis in Extremadura, southern Spain

Waldo L García-Jiménez, María Cortés, José M Benítez-Medina, Inés Hurtado, Remigio Martínez, Alfredo García-Sánchez, David Risco, Rosario Cerrato, Cristina Sanz, Miguel Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Pedro Fernández-Llario, Javier Hermoso-de-Mendoza
Tropical Animal Health and Production 2016, 48 (8): 1533-1540
27524741
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) causes significant losses to farming economies worldwide. A better understanding on the epidemiology of this disease and the role that the different hosts develop in the maintenance and spread of bTB is vital to control this zoonotic disease. This study reports the spoligotype diversity and temporal evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) isolates obtained from Extremadura (southern Spain). Genotyping data of Mycobacterium bovis (n = 2102) and Mycobacterium caprae (n = 96) isolates from cattle and wildlife species, collected between 2008 and 2012, were used in this study. The isolates resulted clustered into 88 spoligotypes which varied largely in frequency and occurrence in the three hosts. The 20 most frequent patterns represented 91.99 % of the isolates, the spoligotype SB0121 being the clearly predominant and most widely dispersed geographically. The major variety of the spoligotype patterns (78 out of 88) was isolated from the cattle, in fact 50 (56.83 %) of the patterns were found only in this species. Within the spoligotypes shared between the cattle and wildlife species, 17 patterns (1747 isolates) were shared with wild boar and Iberian red deer, 10 patterns (308 isolates) were exclusively shared with wild boar, and only one pattern (two isolates) was shared exclusively with Iberian red deer. The significant number of spoligotypes shared between the three hosts (79.49 %) highlights the components of the multi-host system that allows the bTB maintenance in our study area. The greater percentage of isolates shared by the wild boar and cattle (93.50 %) supports the role of wild boar as main maintenance host for bTB in cattle. These results could be extrapolated to areas with a similar epidemiological scenario and could be helpful for other countries where wild reservoirs represent a handicap for the successful eradication of bTB from livestock.

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