Outcomes After Revision Hip Arthroscopic Surgery in Adolescent Patients Compared With a Matched Cohort Undergoing Primary Arthroscopic Surgery

Justin T Newman, Karen K Briggs, Shannen C McNamara, Marc J Philippon
American Journal of Sports Medicine 2016, 44 (12): 3063-3069

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hip arthroscopic surgery is increasing in the young athlete. This has also led to increased numbers of revision hip arthroscopic surgery.

HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the outcomes after revision hip arthroscopic surgery in patients ≤18 years of age in comparison to a matched cohort of patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery. Our hypothesis was that patients undergoing revision hip arthroscopic surgery would demonstrate similar outcomes to those patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery.

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS: Patients were included in the study if they underwent revision hip arthroscopic surgery by a single surgeon and did not undergo prior open hip surgery. Each patient in the revision hip arthroscopic surgery cohort was matched with 2 patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery from the same institution. Cohorts were matched by age, sex, and year of surgery. Preoperatively and at a minimum follow-up of 2 years, outcome scores were collected. The primary outcome measure was the Hip Outcome Score for activities of daily living scale (HOS-ADL), a self-reported validated outcome instrument, in addition to the HOS for sports scale (HOS-Sport), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS).

RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included in the revision group and were matched with 84 patients in the primary group. The mean age in both groups was 16 years (range, 14-18 years). All female patients in the study were ≥14 years of age, and all male patients were ≥16 years of age. In patients undergoing revision, 13 underwent 1 prior surgical procedure, 22 underwent 2 prior surgical procedures, and 7 underwent ≥3 prior surgical procedures. The mean time from last surgery to revision was 18.7 months (range, 4.7-74 months). Eleven patients (26%) had prior femoroacetabular impingement treated, which required osteoplasty or rim trimming at revision. Subsequent hip arthroscopic surgery was reported in 3 of 84 (4%) patients in the primary group and 6 of 42 (14%) patients in the revision group (P = .162). The mean follow-up in the revision group was 43 ± 17 months, and scores significantly improved (HOS-ADL: 59.6 to 77.6; HOS-Sport: 37.6 to 64.8; mHHS: 55.3 to 74.3; SF-12 PCS: 41.0 to 50.4; P < .05). The mean follow-up in the primary group was 45 ± 18 months, and all scores significantly improved (HOS-ADL: 65.8 to 87.4; HOS-Sport: 46.3 to 79.9; mHHS: 57.5 to 84.2; SF-12 PCS: 39.0 to 51.8; P < .05). At follow-up, there were no significant differences between the primary and revision groups for the HOS-ADL values (P = .051) and SF-12 PCS values (P = .846). Patients in the primary group had significantly higher HOS-Sport values (P = .008), mHHS values (P = .008), and patient satisfaction (P = .008). Patients who underwent 1 prior hip arthroscopic procedure had a higher mean postoperative mHHS value (79.5 vs 72, respectively), HOS-ADL value (91.2 vs 73.4, respectively), and HOS-Sport value (76 vs 60, respectively) (P < .05) compared with those who underwent more than 1 prior procedure. Median patient satisfaction was 9.0 (range, 2-10) in the primary group and 8.0 (range, 2-10) in the revision group.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, young patients who required revision hip arthroscopic surgery showed significant improvement in patient-reported outcome scores; however, final outcome scores in the revision group for sport activity, general health, and satisfaction were lower than those in the primary group. Patients who underwent 1 revision surgical procedure had higher outcome scores than patients who underwent more than 1 revision surgical procedure.

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