Reconstruction of implanted marker trajectories from cone-beam CT projection images using interdimensional correlation modeling

Hyekyun Chung, Per Rugaard Poulsen, Paul J Keall, Seungryong Cho, Byungchul Cho
Medical Physics 2016, 43 (8): 4643

PURPOSE: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a widely used imaging modality for image-guided radiotherapy. Most vendors provide CBCT systems that are mounted on a linac gantry. Thus, CBCT can be used to estimate the actual 3-dimensional (3D) position of moving respiratory targets in the thoracic/abdominal region using 2D projection images. The authors have developed a method for estimating the 3D trajectory of respiratory-induced target motion from CBCT projection images using interdimensional correlation modeling.

METHODS: Because the superior-inferior (SI) motion of a target can be easily analyzed on projection images of a gantry-mounted CBCT system, the authors investigated the interdimensional correlation of the SI motion with left-right and anterior-posterior (AP) movements while the gantry is rotating. A simple linear model and a state-augmented model were implemented and applied to the interdimensional correlation analysis, and their performance was compared. The parameters of the interdimensional correlation models were determined by least-square estimation of the 2D error between the actual and estimated projected target position. The method was validated using 160 3D tumor trajectories from 46 thoracic/abdominal cancer patients obtained during CyberKnife treatment. The authors' simulations assumed two application scenarios: (1) retrospective estimation for the purpose of moving tumor setup used just after volumetric matching with CBCT; and (2) on-the-fly estimation for the purpose of real-time target position estimation during gating or tracking delivery, either for full-rotation volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in 60 s or a stationary six-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a beam delivery time of 20 s.

RESULTS: For the retrospective CBCT simulations, the mean 3D root-mean-square error (RMSE) for all 4893 trajectory segments was 0.41 mm (simple linear model) and 0.35 mm (state-augmented model). In the on-the-fly simulations, prior projections over more than 60° appear to be necessary for reliable estimations. The mean 3D RMSE during beam delivery after the simple linear model had established with a prior 90° projection data was 0.42 mm for VMAT and 0.45 mm for IMRT.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method does not require any internal/external correlation or statistical modeling to estimate the target trajectory and can be used for both retrospective image-guided radiotherapy with CBCT projection images and real-time target position monitoring for respiratory gating or tracking.

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