[Treatment of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and the breast feeding : Psychotherapy and other nondrug therapies].
The majority of women suffering from psychiatric disorders in pregnancy and the breast feeding prefer psychotherapy and other nonpharmacological treatment over psychopharmacological treatment although the risk of malformations and postnatal complications in children exposed to psychopharmacological drugs must be regarded as acceptable in moderate to severely ill patients. Data are lacking, but several psychotherapeutic and biological treatments as well as noninvasive brain stimulation procedures have been investigated to treat depressive episodes and anxiety disorders in pregnancy and the breast feeding. In mild to moderate depressive episodes different psychotherapy treatments and counseling are significantly more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than no treatment.The same seems to be true for anxiety disorders; however, studies on this are sparse. Treatment by telephone and internet also seems to improve symptoms, which is of interest especially in the less flexible group of breast feeding women and for the development of future health care structures. Noninvasive stimulation treatment has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacological therapeutic option. Data for other recent noninvasive brain stimulation treatments and biological treatments as well as exercise therapy are sparse. In severe and delusional cases as well as treatment-resistant depressive episodes, electroconvulsive therapy should be considered in pregnant women. Because several patients prefer nonpharmacological therapy during this period, those should be applied if available and feasible. Regarding nonpharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia during pregnancy and the breast feeding, no recommendation can currently be given.
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