Radial artery deviation and reimplantation inhibits venous juxta-anastomotic stenosis and increases primary patency of radial-cephalic fistulas for hemodialysis

Nirvana Sadaghianloo, Serge Declemy, Elixène Jean-Baptiste, Pierre Haudebourg, Christophe Robino, Mohamed Shariful Islam, Réda Hassen-Khodja, Alan Dardik
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2016, 64 (3): 698-706.e1

OBJECTIVE: Although the end cephalic vein-to-side radial artery arteriovenous fistula is the "gold standard" procedure for primary hemodialysis access, it is associated with high rates of primary failure because of the development of neointimal hyperplasia and juxta-anastomotic stenosis. We report initial results of a new approach to perform radial-cephalic fistulas, radial artery deviation and reimplantation (RADAR), designed to avoid juxta-anastomotic stenosis.

METHODS: RADAR patients' data were prospectively maintained and retrospectively reviewed and compared with a historical control group of traditional radial-cephalic fistulas created in the same center. Duplex ultrasound was used to monitor maturation (flow ≥500 mL/min and venous diameter ≥5 mm) and to diagnose juxta-anastomotic stenosis. Study end points were rates of maturation, juxta-anastomotic stenosis, reintervention, and primary and secondary patency.

RESULTS: There were 53 RADAR fistulas performed (follow-up, 10.5 ± 2.6 months) and compared with 73 control fistulas (follow-up, 12.0 ± 6.6 months). RADAR fistulas had increased rates of maturation compared with control fistulas (75% vs 45% at 6 weeks, P = .001; 92% vs 71% at 3 months, P = .003) and decreased incidence of juxta-anastomotic venous stenoses (2% vs 41%; P = .001). At 6 months, RADAR fistulas had increased primary patency (93% vs 53%; P < .0001) and secondary patency (100% vs 89%; P = .0003) and decreased incidence of reinterventions (10% vs 74%; P = .001) compared with control fistulas. No RADAR fistulas caused ischemic symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: The RADAR technique is associated with less juxta-anastomotic stenosis, increased maturation and patency, and fewer secondary interventions. These improved outcomes suggest that RADAR may be the preferred surgical technique to perform radial-cephalic arteriovenous fistula.

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